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300-100 exam Dumps Source : LPIC-3 Exam 300: Mixed Environments, version 1.0

Test Code : 300-100
Test title : LPIC-3 Exam 300: Mixed Environments, version 1.0
Vendor title : LPI
: 118 existent Questions

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LPI LPIC-3 Exam 300: Mixed

Six spicy Linux Certifications for 2019 | existent Questions and Pass4sure dumps

Written via Reena Ghosh posted: 17 December 2018

web page 2 of 2

Get one of these  spicy certs in 2019 to  capture your Linux game to the next level!red Hat licensed Engineer (RHCE)

The RHCE certification is designed for RHCSA credential holders who aspire to develop into senior system directors of purple Hat commercial enterprise Linux (RHEL) programs in addition to skilled device administrators who want to certify or whose job or a mandate requires them to deserve this credential.

The RHCE certification validates the capacity to configure and manage systems, together with file beginning, to automate rig renovation the usage of shell scripts, configure network services for HTTP/HTTPS, DNS, NFS, SMB, SMTP, SSH, and NTP, and installation, configure and administer database features besides RHCSA competencies.

Candidates can form a election from more than a few training alternatives. crimson Hat recommends the red Hat system Administration I (RH124), crimson Hat device Administration II (RH134), and red Hat gadget Administration III (RH254) lessons for windows administrators with constrained Linux experience. For Linux/UNIX administrators with 1-to-three years of experience, purple Hat suggests the RHCSA rapid music route (RH199) and red Hat rig Administration III (RH254). The RHCE Lab is apropos for RHCEs who are seeking recertification.

To deserve the RHCE credential, you must circulate the RHCSA (EX 200) and the 3.5-hour fingers-on RHCE (EX 300) checks. prerequisites: RHCSA.

more information

pink Hat certified Architect (RHCA)

The traumatic and time-consuming RHCA certification is a positive credential for experts who labor with pink Hat Linux programs and wish to benefit each breadth and depth of handicap and expertise in this environment. The prerequisite for the RHCA is either the RHCE or the purple Hat licensed JBoss Developer (RHCJD).

The RHCA program is designed to accommodate the different wants of enterprises that consume red Hat Linux and the interests of IT experts. groups and people Have a number of alternate options to form a election from. RHCJDs can choose any combination within the commercial enterprise applications music and deserve at the least 5 certifications from the Developer list on the purple Hat web page to qualify as a RHCA in enterprise applications.

RHCEs Have the option of deciding upon any combination from the RHCA in Infrastructure song. They Have to deserve at the least 5 certifications from the rig Administrator listing to obtain the RHCA in Infrastructure.

in order to preserve their credentials, RHCAs in commerce purposes and Infrastructure must retain forex of their certifications. crimson Hat offers a brace of working towards alternate options and advises candidates to choose one in keeping with the certification combinations they are looking to pursue. crimson Hat recommends the pink Hat getting to know Subscription.

extra information

LPI (Linux professional Institute) Certifications

The Linux knowledgeable Institute (LPI) is a trusted Linux certification company. Their non-seller-, non-distribution-specific credentials cover Linux tools, technologies and handicap and might live advantageous for professionals who are searching for an figuring out of a wide array of Linux subject matters and technologies as well as those that ply distributions for which credentials aren't available.

essentially the most in-demand LPI certifications are Linux Administrator (LPIC-1), Linux Engineer (LPIC-2), and Linux commerce expert (LPIC-three).

LPIC-1 validates fundamental Linux potential. Aspirants must circulate 2 tests, one zero one-400 and 102-four hundred, to deserve this certification. specialists with a legitimate CompTIA Linux+ (Powered with the aid of LPI) qualify for this certification.

LPIC-2 demonstrates expertise and potential in managing diminutive and medium-sized blended networks. Candidates must Have a existing LPIC-1 and tide 2 assessments, 201-450 and 202-450, to deserve this credential.

LPIC-three is designed for senior Linux execs that grasp a legitimate LPIC-2. This credential validates superior Linux enterprise-degree talents. LPIC-2 holders should circulate one of the crucial 300 checks either in mixed environment, security, or Virtualization and elevated Availability.

All three certifications are telling for five years. exams are managed with the aid of Pearson VUE. For self-examine substances, candidates can browse the LPI market, as well as Amazon.

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other daily certifications consist of Oracle Linux OCA and OCP. capture into account that certifications can add cost to your résumé, but that the majority managers will want to recognize even if you’ve deployed and maintained Linux in an commercial enterprise environment. It never hurts to settle on up some useful experience along the way!

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Reena Ghosh is an unbiased ghostwriter who writes promotional, developmental and explanatory content material for people and businesses. She got here to professional writing with labor event in monetary services operations and corporate verbal exchange. Reena speaks three languages and hopes to live trained Sanskrit.

Linux expert Institute to alternate Linux Certification courses | existent Questions and Pass4sure dumps

Feb 28, 2013

The Linux professional Institute (LPI), a Linux certification organization, is making changes to its LPIC-2 and LPIC-3 certification courses. the modern goals for these certifications are privilege now under construction. modern checks will live available in English on October 1, 2013 with local translations and pricing to live introduced.

The Linux expert Institute is globally supported by route of the IT trade, enterprise customers, group professionals, govt entities and the tutorial group. LPI's primary monetary sponsors are platinum sponsors IBM, Linux Journal, Linux journal, Novell, SGI, and TurboLinux as well as gold sponsors, HP and IDG.

in line with the LPI, it's concentrating on elementary and advanced gadget administration skills in LPIC-2, whereas additional focusing the LPIC-3 program on selected specialties such as blended environments, security, and elevated availability/virtualization. The upcoming changes additionally replicate LPI's labor with the higher open supply neighborhood in to authenticate the competence sets integral for a lot of really expert job roles for Linux specialists.

A revised program roadmap and a description of proposed alterations to the LPIC-2 and LPIC-3 certification software can live discovered privilege here.

exact 5 | Linux Certifications in 2018 | existent Questions and Pass4sure dumps

1. LPIC (Linux expert Institute Certification)

began lower back in 1999 by Linus Torvalds, these Linux certifications today has develop into faultfinding for any Linux knowledgeable. This program is available in four discrete tiers, which can be:

LPI : Linux essentials Certification

The Linux essentials professional structure certificate (PDC) furthermore serves as a terrific stepping-stone to the extra superior LPIC expert Certification track for Linux programs directors.

present edition: 1.5 (exam code 010–150)

must haves: There are no prerequisites for this certification

necessities: Passing the Linux necessities 010 exam

Validity duration: Lifetime

Languages: English, German. The exam may well live written in privilege here languages only at paper-based mostly examination hobbies: Portuguese (Brazilian), Italian, Spanish (modern), chinese (Simplified), chinese language (average)

To deserve hold of the Linux essentials certificate the candidate ought to:

  • have an knowing of the Linux and open supply commerce and expertise of the most universal open supply functions;
  • understand the primary components of the Linux operating equipment, and Have the technical proficiency to labor on the Linux command line; and
  • have a simple figuring out of safety and administration linked themes such as person/group administration, working on the command line, and permissions.
  • LPIC- 1: Linux Administrator Certification

    LPIC-1 is the primary certification in LPI’s multi-stage Linux professional certification application. The LPIC-1 will validate the candidate’s capability to operate renovation projects on the command line, installation and configure a pc operating Linux and configure simple networking.

    The LPIC-1 is designed to mirror existing analysis and validate a candidate’s proficiency in existent world device administration. The objectives are tied to precise-world job skills, which they assess via job project evaluation surveying totality through exam building.

    present edition: four.0 (examination codes 101–four hundred and 102–four hundred)

    prerequisites: There aren't any necessities for this certification

    requirements: Passing assessments one hundred and one and 102

    Validity duration: 5 years

    Languages: English, German, Italian, Portuguese (Brazilian), Spanish (up to date), chinese (Simplified), chinese (normal) and eastern

    To develop into LPIC-1 licensed the candidate must live capable of:

  • have in mind the structure of a Linux system;
  • install and withhold a Linux notebook, including X11 and setup it up as a community client;
  • work at the Linux command line, including typical GNU and Unix instructions;
  • address information and access permissions as well as device security; and
  • function easy preservation initiatives: assist users, add users to a larger system, backup and restore, shutdown and reboot.
  • LPIC- 2: Linux Engineer Certification

    here's an superior level Linux Certification, which requires an lively LPIC-1 certification. It has two assessments- First covers the file rig and instruments, kernel, rig startup, network configuration, rig preservation, storage administration, and even capacity planning and the 2d examination covers email functions, community customer administration, district title servers, rig protection and troubleshooting.

    LPIC-2 is the 2d certification in LPI’s multi-level expert certification software. The LPIC-2 will validate the candidate’s competence to manage diminutive to medium–sized blended networks. The candidate requisite to Have an energetic LPIC-1 certification to acquire LPIC-2 certification, however the LPIC-1 and LPIC-2 exams can live taken in any order.

    latest edition: 4.5 (exam codes 201–450 and 202–450).

    prerequisites: The candidate ought to Have an energetic LPIC-1 certification to receive LPIC-2 certification, but the LPIC-1 and LPIC-2 tests may live taken in any order

    requirements: Passing assessments 201 and 202

    Validity duration: 5 years

    Languages: English, German, eastern

    To become LPIC-2 licensed the candidate must live able to:

  • operate superior system administration, including common projects related to the Linux kernel, gadget startup and preservation;
  • operate superior management of obstruct storage and file systems as well as advanced networking and authentication and gadget security, together with firewall and VPN;
  • installation and configure primary network functions, together with DHCP, DNS, SSH, internet servers, file servers the usage of FTP, NFS and Samba, e mail delivery; and
  • supervise assistants and recommend management on automation and purchases.
  • LPIC- three: Linux enterprise knowledgeable Certification

    it's a senior-degree Linux certification, which needs an lively LPIC-2 besides passing any unique examination within the 300 sequence. This certification comprises exam IDs, which are:

  • 300: mixed atmosphere
  • 303: safety
  • 304: Virtualization and elevated Availability
  • 300: blended atmosphere covers Samba, labor with Linux & windows customer, and even plus OpenLDAP.

    303: security covers operations, software protection, and the community are lined below the protection exam anyway cryptography and entry controls.

    304: Virtualization and extreme Availability covers virtualization and elevated availability cluster storage and engagement.

    present edition: 1.0 (examination code 300–one hundred)

    prerequisites: The candidate should Have an energetic LPIC-2 certification to acquire LPIC-three certification, however the LPIC-2 and LPIC-three tests may well live taken in any order

    requirements: Passing the 300 exam

    Validity length: 5 years

    Languages: English, jap

    2. CompTIA Linux+

    CompTIA Linux+ covers regular initiatives in predominant distributions of Linux, including the Linux command line, fundamental preservation, setting up and configuring workstations, and networking.

    Let’s recognize greater about these two Linux certifications here:

  • CompTIA Linux Certification (LX0–103) — defined
  • This test covers these few domains, which can be:

  • GNU and UNIX commands
  • gadget structure
  • Linux installation and kit management
  • contraptions, Linux Filesystems, Filesystem Hierarchy general
  • 2. CompTIA Linux Certification (LX0–104) — explained

    This test covers these few domains, which are:

  • protection
  • Shells, Scripting, and statistics management
  • person Interfaces and computers
  • Administrative projects
  • essential system capabilities
  • Networking Fundamentals
  • examination particulars

    examination Description: Linux+ is constructed from two checks — LX0–103 and LX0–104. Candidates ought to sail LX0–103 before taking LX0–104. each verify Have:-

    number of Questions: 60 questions

    class of Questions: assorted election (Single Response), dissimilar Response and Fill-in-the-blank

    length of observe at various: ninety Minutes

    Passing ranking: 500 (on a scale of 200 to 800)

    informed experience: CompTIA A+, CompTIA network+ and twelve months of Linux admin adventure

    Languages: English, German, Portuguese, Spanish

    expense: $206 USD (See totality pricing)

    3. RHCE (red Hat certified Engineer)

    The pink Hat certified Engineer (RHCE) is a certification which you could deserve to develop into a pink Hat certified system Administrator (RHCSA). The RHCE certification indicates that you've proven the competencies, skill and skill required of senior device administrator accountable for pink Hat commercial enterprise Linux techniques.

    In case, you Have got earned RHCE, you whirl into eligible for RHCA (purple Hat certified Architect) credentials including:

  • RHCA: application building
  • RHCA: Datacenter
  • RHCA: Cloud
  • RHCA: DevOps
  • RHCA: application platform
  • 4. Oracle Linux

    Certifications incorporate of two assessments, which are:

  • OCA- 1Z0–one hundred Oracle Linux 5 and 6 gadget Administration, wants sixty one% to flow, and 80 inquiries to effort
  • OCP- 1Z0–one zero five Oracle Linux 6 advanced gadget Administrator, requires sixty one% to circulate, and has a complete of ninety seven questions.
  • 5. GIAC certified UNIX protection Administrator (GCUX) Description

    GIAC licensed UNIX rig administrators (GCUXs) Have the knowledge, competencies and competencies to comfy and audit UNIX and Linux methods.


    individuals chargeable for installation, configuring, and monitoring UNIX and/or Linux systems.

    *No selected working towards is required for any GIAC certification. there are many sources of assistance accessible regarding the certification pursuits’ skills areas. practical event is an choice; there are furthermore numerous books on the market covering computer suggestions security. a different option is any imperative lessons from practising suppliers, including SANS.*

  • 1 proctored exam
  • 75 questions
  • deadline of 2 hours
  • minimal Passing rating of 68%
  • Renew

    Certifications ought to live renewed every 4 years. click on here for particulars.


    word: totality GIAC exams are delivered through proctored observe at various centers and Have to live scheduled in advance.GIAC certification makes an attempt should live activated on your GIAC account after your application has been accredited and in line with the terms of your purchase. details on delivery should live supplied along with your registration affirmation upon charge. you will obtain an e mail notification when your certification effort has been activated for your account. You could Have a hundred and twenty days from the date of activation to complete your certification effort. GIAC exams Have to live proctored through Pearson VUE. please click on here link for guidelines on a route to schedule Your GIAC Proctored exam GIAC checks are delivered on-line through a common internet browser.


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    Ingesting diminutive doses of peanut products guards against allergic reactions—but an undercurrent of concern persists.

    Jacob Kingsley, 12, visits a bakery that was off-limits before he began oral immunotherapy for a peanut allergy.


    Jacob Kingsley was 9 years veteran when he was handed the poison he'd shunned since before he could walk and told to swallow it as medicine. Obediently, he gulped down a few micrograms of peanut flour—less than 1/1000 of a peanut—diluted in grape Kool-Aid. His mother and a nurse hovered, ready to inject him with epinephrine if an itchy throat and wheezing struck.

    Jacob's mother, Jennifer Kingsley, had driven him 2 hours from their home in Columbus to this doctor's office in Cincinnati, Ohio, for the first of dozens of sessions of peanut immunotherapy. Giving Jacob gradually increasing doses of peanuts, she hoped, would desensitize his immune system.

    It's a strategy Kingsley hadn't pursued until she reached her breaking point. A year earlier, Jacob had swallowed a handful of popcorn that, unbeknownst to him, was laced with peanut product. He suffered a particularly frightening reaction: two bouts of fierce symptoms about 6 hours apart. The incident marked his second peanut-related trip to the emergency room, and Kingsley was terrified that the next encounter could live fatal. “I decided, ‘I can't live like this,’” she says. “I was desperate.”

    As Jacob sat through the hourslong appointment in Cincinnati, playing video games and swigging increasing doses of peanut-spiked Kool-Aid, he joined legions of children writing food allergy's next chapter. Today, more than 3000 people worldwide, most of them children, Have undergone peanut immunotherapy, with the goal of protecting them if they accidentally encounter the food. Other children are trying immunotherapy for allergies to milk, eggs, and tree nuts. Some, like Jacob, deserve treatment in allergists' offices, where doctors participate protocols informally and in published papers. Other children Have enrolled in clinical trials, including those dash by two companies racing to interject a peanut-based capsule or skin patch. Both plot to apply for approval from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) this year. The agency's blessing would dramatically boost immunotherapy's credibility and reach.

    In a territory that for decades has had nothing to tender patients beyond avoidance, immunotherapy marks a seismic shift. As it edges closer to mainstream, “There's mixed feelings, with a total gain of enthusiasm,” says Corinne Keet, a pediatric allergist-immunologist at Johns Hopkins Medicine in Baltimore, Maryland. terror that it might cause harm is mingling with euphoria that children animated constrained lives could live set free. Doctors who tender immunotherapy relate families eating in Chinese restaurants for the first time and home-schooled children rejoining their peers.

    Like many medical firsts, the therapy is not perfect. “This is version 1.0,” says Brian Vickery, a pediatric allergist-immunologist at Emory University in Atlanta. He has conducted peanut immunotherapy trials and worked for 2 years at Aimmune Therapeutics, headquartered in Brisbane, California, one of the companies whose products are nearing approval. Physicians fret about oral immunotherapy's rigors—treatment must continue indefinitely—and its risks, which include the same allergic reactions it aims to prevent. terminal year in Japan, a child suffered brain damage during a visitation of immunotherapy for milk allergies.

    Meanwhile, physicians on the front lines are navigating hazy science. No one knows exactly how immunotherapy works or who's most likely to live helped or Hurt by it. “For me,” Keet says, “it's really not lucid for an tolerable child with peanut allergy whether it will form sense to enact oral immunotherapy or not.”

    LIKE MANY WHO STUDY food allergies, Keet was enticed by their mystery. Animal models are poor. The intensity of allergic reactions varies unpredictably, even in the same person over time. Why one child outgrows an allergy and another doesn't is unknown.

    “This was something they didn't cover much in medical school” in the 1990s, says Matthew Greenhawt, a pediatric allergist-immunologist at Children's Hospital Colorado in Denver. Greenhawt's career trajectory tracks with a surge in food allergies, and these days, he can barely withhold up with the stream of affected children who visit his hospital. Today, between 1% and 2% of people in the United States, the United Kingdom, and several other countries are allergic to peanuts—a rate that has roughly tripled since the mid-1990s. Other food allergies, such as those to tree nuts, are furthermore on the rise. What's causing the increase is not well understood.

    Despite rising caseloads, deaths from food allergies remain rare. Precise numbers are arduous to foster by, and estimates gain from fewer than 10 to more than 150 a year in the United States. But even though an affected child is more likely to live struck by lightning than to die of a food allergy, the risk can feel ever-present. Parents never know when their children will befall upon culprit foods and how they'll live affected if they do. “We live in a intricate world—people sail food totality over the place,” says David Bunning, a businessman whose two sons, now adults, Have multiple food allergies. “The impact on children in terms of their confidence to explore their environment can live extreme.” Bunning's family almost never traveled or ate out. At their grandparents' house, the boys were usually confined to one elbowroom where food wasn't allowed.

    Bunning now chairs the board of directors at Food Allergy Research & Education (FARE), an advocacy group in McLean, Virginia. Families like his, and the doctors who cared for their children, began to churn for modern treatments about a decade ago. Immunotherapy was the obvious candidate: Injections that desensitize the immune system to pollen, grass, pet dander, and bee venom Have been around for decades.

    Whether for an allergy to cats or pistachios, immunotherapy aims to disrupt the cells that oscillate out of control when faced with an allergen. When a child who is allergic to a food eats it, food proteins cross from the digestive tract into the bloodstream. An antibody called immunoglobulin E (IgE), which is bound to white blood cells called mast cells in tissues, recognizes the culprits. IgE activates the mast cells, which release histamine and other chemicals. In the skin, that response can lead to hives; in the respiratory tract, wheezing; and in the gut, vomiting. The most staid symptoms, such as a swollen throat or a reaction throughout the body, mark anaphylaxis, which is what families terror the most. Allergy shots blunt production of IgE, in part, researchers believe, by boosting levels of inevitable T cells that prompt a cascade of immune changes.

    Fighting fire with fire

    Eating gradually increasing doses of a food allergen seems to desensitize the immune system over time. Thousands of children Have tried oral immunotherapy, and a capsule to treat peanut allergies might live approved by regulators next year. But there's concern about the strategy's risks and unknowns.


    Brief testing decades ago indicated that shots for food allergies weren't safe. So around the mid-2000s, scientists began to feed children the allergen instead. One watershed minute came in 2005, when the National Institutes of Health formed a consortium for food allergy clinical trials. A second was in 2011, when advocates sponsored a symposium at Harvard Medical School in Boston to standardize goals and strategy for the pioneering immunotherapy efforts. About 60 people attended. “The patients were very clear,” says Carla McGuire Davis, a pediatric allergist-immunologist at Texas Children's Hospital in Houston. They didn't permeate about eating a peanut butter sandwich; they wanted protection if they accidentally encountered one. Trialists set their linger dose at a brace of peanuts and pressed ahead.

    The results of early clinical trials were promising, says Hugh Sampson, a pediatric allergist-immunologist at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai in modern York City, who has studied immunotherapy in food allergies for many years. After 6 to 12 months of treatment, he says, about 70% to 80% of patients could ply higher doses of the food than before. Lab data were encouraging, too: Ingesting allergens over time seems to form mast cells less reactive, inhibiting their release of harmful chemicals. The therapy furthermore produces other immunoglobulins: IgG4, which further inhibits mast cell activity, and IgA, which helps withhold food allergens from escaping the gut (see graphic, p. 280).

    The 2011 conference inspired the founding of the company now called Aimmune, fueled by more than $3.5 million from FARE. A second company, DBV Technologies, based in Montrouge, France, and modern York City, expanded a few years later. Aimmune began to develop an oral product, essentially a capsule of powder derived from peanut flour with proteins held to consistent levels. In February, the company announced in a press release the results of a phase III visitation involving 496 children and teenagers, with a regimen stepping up every 2 weeks through 11 dose levels. Among the 372 people in the treatment group, about 20% dropped out for various reasons, including side effects. After about a year, 96% of people who completed treatment could consume one peanut with no more than mild symptoms, 84% could tolerate two, and 63% could tolerate at least three.

    DBV's skin patch represents a more conservative strategy: It delivers tiny amounts of peanut protein, the equivalent of one peanut over 3 years. terminal year, DBV announced that in its phase III visitation of almost 400 patients, after a year, those using the patch could, on average, ingest three peanuts over the course of several hours before experiencing clinical symptoms such as vomiting or hives; before the trial, the tolerable was just under one peanut. Outcomes varied substantially from person to person.

    If one or both products are approved by FDA in the coming months, expectations are elevated that they'll live welcomed: Aimmune is now worth about $1.5 billion on the U.S. stock exchange. In 2016, FARE sold its participate in Aimmune for $47 million.

    MEANWHILE, SOME DOCTORS embrace another route: offering peanut immunotherapy in their practices. “I can treat 20 patients with $5.95 of peanut flour,” says Richard L. Wasserman, a pediatric allergist-immunologist in Dallas, Texas.

    Wasserman ventured into food allergy immunotherapy 11 years ago. He developed a protocol based partly on published case reports and protocols for allergy shots, and he keep IVs into his first five peanut allergy patients in case he had only seconds to rescue them from strict anaphylaxis. “When they totality sailed through the first day, they stopped doing IVs,” he says. “But that's a measure of how concerned I was.”

    Wasserman has since treated more than 300 children with peanut allergies and more than 400 with other food allergies. Other practitioners are joining in, among them the Cincinnati allergist whom the Kingsley family sought out: Justin Greiwe at Bernstein Allergy Group. Greiwe joined the practice in 2014, straight out of medical training. “It was a dinky nerve-wracking at the beginning,” he says, because no officially sanctioned oral immunotherapy protocol existed. He took precautionary measures, such as lung testing before every treatment, to assist ensure patient safety.

    Some clinicians—and executives at the companies developing products—aren't tickled about the doctor's office treatments. “That gives a lot of us pause,” says Sampson, who in addition to his academic post is chief scientific officer of DBV. “We're very afraid that if this goes on enough, somebody is going to Have an accident or a deadly reaction, and that's really going to change the FDA's viewpoint” about the products in development, he says.

    Wasserman agrees about the requisite for caution. “Not every practicing allergist should live doing oral immunotherapy,” he says. Greiwe suggests the treatment requires a dedicated staff, and he gives every immunotherapy family his cellphone number.

    Jacob was one of Greiwe's first immunotherapy patients. His mother remembers Jacob's ears burning—a minor reaction that subsided on its own. “Or he said he hated peanuts and wanted to quit,” she says. Worst was about 6 months in, when Kingsley discovered that for 2 weeks, Jacob had hidden his dose to avoid eating it. That was “the only time they ever felt danger,” she says. Stopping treatment can quickly alter the immune system, says Cecilia Berin, an immunologist at Mount Sinai, because immunotherapy requires constant exposure. When Jacob squirreled away his daily dose, the changes induced in his immune system almost certainly started to fade out, putting him at risk. Greiwe restarted him on a lower dose and, his mother says, “We got through it.”

    EVEN CHILDREN WHO faithfully follow instructions puss risks. The immune system can react to even subtle pressures, and the list of what can stir a reaction to treatment is long. Exercising within a brace of hours of the dose can enact it; so can a cold, a stomach virus, menstruation, or a spicy shower. An asthma beset can trigger a reaction—many children with allergies Have asthma as well—and so can stress. “We had a patient who had just played the violin on a stage, came down, and about 15 minutes later … took the dose and had a reaction,” Davis says.

    Berin posits that external pressures such as physical activity or illness form the gut more permeable, pushing more of the immunotherapy dose into the bloodstream. But that remains hypothesis. Regardless, it's becoming lucid that “there are people who react years down the road to a maintenance dose,” Keet says. For Jacob, such a minute came 9 months in. One evening while watching a movie, he downed his peanut M&M's and later ran outside with his cousins to dance in a rainstorm. He broke out in hives head to toe. Kingsley dialed Greiwe's number, and Jacob got a double dose of an allergy medication.

    Food allergies are becoming more common, and a handful of foods accounts for the vast majority of allergies. But diminutive doses of the foods can blunt allergic reactions.


    The most tragic data point to date is the case in Japan. A child had enrolled in a visitation of immunotherapy for milk allergies at the Kanagawa Children's Medical center in Yokohama. He'd raised what he could ingest from less than 8 milliliters to 135 milliliters—about half a glass of milk. After 3 months on that maintenance dose, he swallowed it and soon complained of pain. Within minutes, he had stopped breathing. His heartbeat was later restored in the emergency room, but he'd gone too long without it and sustained strict brain damage, according to a statement from the hospital's president, Sumimasa Yamashita, in November 2017. Kanagawa Children's Medical center declined to comment, saw only that the incident remains under investigation.

    In its statement, the hospital noted the boy had suffered an asthma beset the day before the catastrophic dose. He furthermore was on a protocol that aimed to rapidly escalate the volume of milk he could drink over less than 3 weeks. But why the child reacted so disastrously to that glass of milk is unknown.

    “What people don't understand is this level of protection fluctuates,” says Mimi Tang, a pediatric allergist-immunologist at Murdoch Children's Research Institute in Melbourne, Australia. “It is not guaranteed, nor is it constant.”

    One of the few long-term analyses was published in 2013 in The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. Keet, pediatric allergist-immunologist Robert Wood at Johns Hopkins Medicine, and their colleagues sought out 32 children who'd been in a milk immunotherapy trial. Three to 5 years later, “The results were surprising in a sobering kindly of way,” Wood says. Only about a quarter “were doing considerable … tolerating unlimited quantities of milk without side effects.” Another quarter had abandoned the protocol and returned to strict avoidance. The rest were eating dairy products inconsistently, with intermittent or even frequent allergic reactions. “It's arduous to know which comes first, whether they got complacent” about ingesting it “or backed off because [they were] having too many symptoms,” Wood says.

    MORE AND MORE families are willing to live with those uncertainties because the alternative is greater anxiety. “We were skittish senseless,” says Divya Balachandar, whose daughter Leena Wong, now 7 years old, had her first episode of anaphylaxis at age 4 after being touched by a cashew. Testing revealed Leena furthermore was allergic to sesame, eggs, milk, other tree nuts, and peanuts. Balachandar, a pediatric pulmonologist in modern York City, and her husband enrolled Leena in a federally funded oral immunotherapy visitation for peanut allergy in 2015. “It made me nervous, really nervous, to keep something in my daughter's mouth that she was allergic to,” Balachandar says. She gravitated toward a visitation over treatment with a local allergist because, she says, “there were no rules” about how to treat in private practice. By this spring, Leena could ingest two spoonfuls of peanut butter—about 25 peanuts—without a problem. She started second grade sitting with her classmates at lunchtime, liberated from a sever nut-free table.

    Both companies developing peanut-based treatments instruct they had more volunteers for their trials than they could accommodate. Private practitioners usually Have a waiting list; Greiwe's runs more than 4 months. At Stanford University in Palo Alto, California, which has a big food allergy research program, more than 2000 patients are waitlisted to enroll in the university's clinical trials, says Sharon Chinthrajah, an allergist-immunologist there.

    More treatments are on the horizon. In Australia, Tang is working with a company that's testing an approach she pioneered, a combination of a probiotic and oral peanut immunotherapy. The probiotic should tilt the corpse toward producing the subset of T cells that tolerate the allergen and away from making cells that beset it, she says. Chinthrajah and others are enthusiastic about combining oral immunotherapy with a monoclonal antibody called omalizumab, which is FDA approved to treat allergic asthma. Clinical trials are furthermore gearing up to test other monoclonal antibodies that target molecules involved in allergic inflammation.

    Jacob's and Leena's families are alive to to observe what comes next. Jacob is furthermore allergic to pistachios and cashews, but because he finds those foods easier to avoid than peanuts, the family has rejected immunotherapy that targets them. Leena's family is the opposite. With her older sister and her parents, Leena attends Indian functions regularly, where tree nuts are a common ingredient in sauces. In August, another episode of anaphylaxis landed her in the emergency room: She began to vomit and suffered chest tightness and eye swelling after eating Indian food her parents suspect contained cashews—despite having triple-checked with the restaurant that it did not. “I would adore to enact tree nuts,” Balachandar says, once immunotherapy “becomes more available and better understood.”

    Physicians with profound roots in food allergy immunotherapy hope those modern to it tread carefully. Doctors who tender such treatments “have to know the data cold,” including published results and side effects that may crop up, Greenhawt says. Still, he's thrilled that peanut immunotherapy treatments may soon live approved. The other day, talking with a peanut-allergic 4-year-old and his mother, Greenhawt shared what the next year might bring. “I said, ‘I'm going to observe you a year from now; hopefully, they will Have two products that are approved, and they can talk about which one might live best for you.’” The mother looked startled and delighted, Greenhawt says. “I've never seen somebody smile as brightly as that.”

    JetBlue Airways (JBLU) Q4 2018 Earnings Conference call Transcript | existent questions and Pass4sure dumps

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    JetBlue Airways (NASDAQ: JBLU)Q4 2018 Earnings Conference CallJan. 24, 2019 10:00 a.m. ET

    Good morning. My title is Felicia, and I would like to welcome everyone to the JetBlue Airways fourth-quarter 2018 earnings conference call. As a reminder, today's call is being recorded. [Operator instructions] I will now like to whirl the call over to JetBlue's Director of Investor Relations David Fintzen.

    Please sail ahead.

    Thanks, Felicia. estimable morning, everyone, and thanks for joining us for their fourth-quarter 2018 earnings call. This morning, they issued their earnings release, their investor update and a presentation that they will reference during this call. totality of those documents are available on their website at and Have been filed with the SEC.

    Joining me here in modern York to debate their results are Robin Hayes, their chief executive officer; Marty St. George, EVP, commercial and planning; Steve Priest, their EVP, chief pecuniary officer; and Joanna Geraghty, their president and chief operating officer. This morning's call includes forward-looking statements about future events. Actual results may differ materially from those expressed in the forward-looking statements due to many factors and, therefore, investors should not station undue reliance on these statements.

    For additional information concerning factors that could cause results to differ from the forward-looking statements, please refer to their press release, 10-Q and other reports filed with the SEC. furthermore during the course of their call, they may debate several non-GAAP pecuniary measures. For a reconciliation of these non-GAAP measures to GAAP measures, please refer to the tables at the linger of their earnings release, a copy of which is available on their website. And now, I would like to whirl the call over to Robin Hayes, JetBlue's CEO.

    Good morning, everyone, and thank you for joining us. I'd like to start with my thanks to their 22,000 crew members across their network for totality their arduous labor through 2018. I'd furthermore like to congratulate their crew members for operating at the airline at a 100% completion from December 10 through January 11th. This is an impressive achievement as they safely delivered their customers to their destinations during one of the busiest times of the year.

    We furthermore want to avow the arduous labor of their federal government partners, especially their partners at the TSA, Customs and margin Protection, and their partners at the FAA and air traffic control for their continued back and professionalism during the shutdown. At this point, we've not seen a significant impact to their operations nor their bookings. However, they are increasingly concerned about the shutdown's consequences for convenient and efficient air travel and for the economy overall. They are proximate to a tipping point as many of these employees are about to miss a second paycheck.

    Our crew members and customers are likely to puss extended security delays -- extended security lines, flight delays and even cancellations. And the longer this goes on, the longer it will capture for the air travel infrastructure to rebound. Their nation believes they must find a resolution to this stalemate today. They will live closely monitoring the events and will provide any updates if needed.

    During 2018, they continued to labor on their plot to strengthen the foundation of JetBlue and position the company to thrive. In bringing this very industrious year to a close, I could not live disdainful of their accomplishments. Just to mention some of them. They executed on their cost guidance, taking a tenacious step toward their zero to 1% CASM CAGR goal, even as they invested to better their operations.

    We completed the negotiation of their first major labor contract. In fleet, they grew both their all-core and their award winning mint A321 fleets, kicked off their 320 restyling program and announced their plans to supersede their E190 fleet with the A220 aircraft. They made significant progress ensuring they Have the gates and infrastructure they requisite to continue to grow relevance in their three largest focus cities. They continued investing in their crew members and customer experience, completing 23 self-service lobbies, employing technology to better customer service and enhancing their digital platform.

    We invested in their subsidiaries, JetBlue Tech Ventures and JetBlue Travel Products, and positioned travel products for growth with modern leadership. Finally at their investor day in early October, they announced their comprehensive pecuniary plot comprised of five structure blocks to create long-term value for their owners. 2018 was a year of significant fuel volatility. They cannot directly control the expense of oil or economic growth, but they can focus on executing the plot they laid out at Investor Day.

    We believe that their network pricing, fleet and cost initiatives will drive higher margins and returns and produce significant EPS growth going forward. They remain confident in their competence to execute on their structure blocks, and they believe they will live able to achieve their $2.50 to $3 EPS target for 2020. They expect to capture a tenacious step toward their 2020 pecuniary goals in 2019. They will, of course, live agile and respond to any short-term pressures should they emerge.

    Our team remains relentlessly focused on executing their plan, and they are pleased with the progress we've made to date on their structure blocks. Over the past two quarters, they took actions to recapture higher fuel costs with ancillary revenue initiatives and Have implemented their announced network reallocations. They are already seeing the positive impacts of these actions flowing through revenue. We're furthermore seeing the results of their structural cost program and Have secured approximately $200 million in 2020 cost savings to the pool earnings.

    We remain on track to hit their three-year cost commitment and are delighted that they reported better-than-expected unit cost results from the fourth quarter and complete year even after three reductions in capacity. They recognize that managing cost is perhaps the most well-known of totality the areas they can directly control. They expect 2019 will live a stepping stone year to deliver on their 2020 goals, and to drive further improvements beyond 2020. Fuel prices Have gone down since their terminal earnings call, but they continue to labor toward improved margins even if jet fuel prices sail back higher.

    In 2019, they expect to observe the full-revenue benefit of ancillary and network reallocation efforts. They furthermore plot to continue strengthening their customer value proposition, maturing their loyalty program and ancillary revenue are making the IT upgrades required to roll out fare option 2.0 later this year. They are mindful of the external environment, but remain focused and committed on executing the initiatives they control, which they believe will create value and drive returns for their owners. Thanks, again, to their crew members for helping us execute their plot and putting JetBlue on the path of drive.

    Marty, over to you.

    Marty St. George -- Executive Vice President, Commercial and Planning

    Thank you, Robin. Let me start with the capacity outlook on glide 6. During the fourth quarter, their flown capacity growth was 9.3%, which is above the midpoint of their guidance gain of 7.5% to 9.5% due to tenacious completion in the quarter. They call it in the fourth quarter of 2017, flown capacity was 2.5 points above scheduled growth due to the impact of hurricane in 2017.

    For the first-quarter 2019, they expect capacity growth between 7.5% and 9.5%, and continue to plot for 5% to 7% growth in 2019. Their sweet spot for growth remains in the mid to elevated single-digit range. And their target in 2019 remains to live on the low half of that range. To live clear, they continue to manage their commerce out of the assumption of higher fuel prices.

    We believe that the at a mid to elevated single-digit growth rate, they can continue to build and strengthen relevance in their focus cities, while silent growing their margins. They point to sustain a solid revenue trends and transfigure capacity growth to EPS as they better their CASM ex-fuel performance. moving to their network. Early this month, they implemented the second phase of their network reallocation structure obstruct as discussed at investor day and redeployed underperforming routes.

    We expect this structure obstruct will back their RASM and further better margins in their focus cities. As a reminder, the January network changes followed redeployments from Long Beach to transcon markets which took result during the third and fourth quarter of 2018. During the fourth quarter, they furthermore continued up-gauge routes from their two largest focus cities, modern York and Boston, with a margin accretive A321 all-core aircraft and their newly restyled A320s. They are delighted that once again and for the seventh consecutive quarter, Fort Lauderdale RASM growth outpaced system average.

    Our transcon franchise remained tenacious in both mint and non-mint markets, with the best year-over-year improvements in the mint furthermore coming in Fort Lauderdale. Turning to glide 7 and the revenue outlooks. We're very pleased with their fourth-quarter RASM performance of 2.4%, which was largely driven by tenacious close-in claim trends across the network. They ended the quarter above the midpoint of their initial guidance range, excluding a 0.3 point impact from higher completion factor.

    Our RASM showed a sequential improvement quarter over quarter. Then in the fourth quarter, it performed very much in line with expectations, with tenacious peaks especially close-in and continued improvement in trough periods. modern York and Fort Lauderdale continue to exhibit RASM strengths, and they were encouraged by sequential improvement in Boston. They were pleased with their RASM performance in the Caribbean, although looking forward they enact observe capacity growth in parts of the region in respond to tenacious demand.

    Turning to their fourth-quarter outlook. They expect RASM growth to live between minus 2% and positive 1% year over year. Up your modeling, their first-quarter RASM guidance translates to an underlying usher of 0.75% to 3.75%, which added back the impact of calendar shift and weather. This year, the Easter passover calendar placement shifts roughly two points of RASM between the first and second quarters.

    Also recall that in the first quarter of 2018, RASM was positively impacted by a more energetic winter that impacted trough weeks. With regards to the government shutdown, to date they Have seen very modest impact on demand. At this point, they Have not seen material impact in first-quarter RASM. They are modeling claim carefully, but their focus remains on strengthening their RASM by executing their ancillary plan.

    In 2019, they are going to focus around their ancillary initiatives and ensuring they deploy their aircraft to the best and highest uses in the network. We've been pleased with the changes we've made to their ancillary pricing terminal August and expect to realize the complete $50 million in annualized dash rate benefits in the first quarter. They continue to expect revenue initiatives will add 1 point to 1.5 points of RASM benefit for calendar 2019. I would like to add my thanks to the crew members across JetBlue for the back and executing their plan, and for their arduous labor and taking permeate of their customers.

    And with that, I'll whirl the call over to Steve.

    Steve Priest -- Executive Vice President, Chief pecuniary Officer

    Thank you, Marty. estimable morning, everyone. I'll start on glide 9 with some highlights from the fourth quarter. Revenue was $2 billion, up 12% year over year.

    Adjusted pre-tax margin was 10.4%, up 0.7 points from the fourth quarter of terminal year, mainly due to non-fuel cost control and tenacious revenue performance through the quarter. They reported a $0.55 GAAP EPS. Adjusted EPS was $0.50 per diluted share. This includes onetime costs related to the E190 fleet transition and the recently signed pilot contract, as well as an $18 million benefit principally related to the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act that was signed into law at the linger of 2017.

    Our adjusted efficacious tax rate this quarter was 24%. They expect their efficacious tax rate to live approximately 26% for 2019. moving to glide 10. Executing on their cost initiatives remains my No.

    1 commerce priority. Exactly one year ago, they laid their 2018 cost guidance, including the second-half inflection in their underlying CASM ex-fuel growth. I'm delighted to say, they exceeded their plot and reported underlying CASM ex-fuel growth below the midpoint of their full-year guidance. They successfully mitigated, added unit cost pressures from lower capacity, executing their cost-reduction efforts according to plot in both the first and second half of 2018.

    I'm pleased they ended their fourth quarter below their initial guidance. The team did a phenomenal job managing through a very energetic 2018 winter, mitigating capacity adjustments to manage ATC risks and higher fuel prices, and continuing to execute their structural cost program. I want to thank totality teams within JetBlue for their arduous labor and finding additional opportunities to mitigate these pressures and deliver their budgets. moving on to glide 11.

    During the fourth quarter, CASM ex-fuel decreased 3.6% year over year, below the low linger of their guidance of minus 3.5% to minus 1.5%. This includes a diminutive benefit of approximately 30 basis points from improved completion factor during the quarter. Their reported annual CASM ex-growth for 2018 was 1.1%. Looking into the first quarter, they expect CASM ex-fuel growth to gain between 1.5% and 3.5%.

    As a reminder, this guidance includes approximately 3-point impact from their pilot contract signed terminal August. moving to glide 12. In 2019, they continue to expect their unit cost to gain between 0% and 2%. They anticipate CASM ex-fuel growth to live higher in the first half than the second half, largely result of the pilot contract signed on August 1, 2018.

    In the second half of 2019, they expect to observe further benefits from the ramp of the structural cost program and the greater impact of their A320 fleet restyling efforts as they labor to linger the year with 70 modified A320s. moving on to glide 13, and their progress report on their structural cost program. They Have now achieved $199 million in dash rate savings by 2020, from $173 million they called out in late October. They continue to expect that their three efforts will result in dash rate savings between $250 million and $300 million.

    The progress we're seeing as a result of nearly 160 individual initiatives, which are helping us reset their cost base throughout JetBlue. These initiatives encompass renegotiated more cost-effective agreements with their commerce partners, integrating technology into their processes and increasing productivity of their crew members on their assets. To give some examples on the sourcing side, they recently signed parts and components agreements for their current A321co fleet, and future NEO fleets and a long-term contract for hefty maintenance on their E190 airplanes. Turning to technology.

    We've decreased customer back costs while improving service levels and making customer communications more efficient. Finally on productivity gains. They completed 23 self-service lobbies, improving their customer experience, while reducing cost and reinforcing scale benefits of up-gauging aircraft. We're furthermore thrilled with the early results of their biometrics efforts, which includes multi-proof-of-concept projects currently within their network.

    Turning to glide 14. They ended 2018 with 253 aircraft in their fleet. We've officially been notified by Airbus of widely known delays in NEO deliveries. They expect a minimum of six A321neo deliveries in 2019 shifting as many as seven aircraft to 2020.

    There is no impact on their 2019 or 2020 capacity and their CASM guidance given that they anticipated there will live changes to their order bespeak when they gave the guidance accordingly. They recently executed the purchase agreement with Airbus for their 60 A220 aircraft, a transaction they announced in July terminal year to supersede their fleet of E190s. Two A320 delivers furthermore shift from 2020 to 2021, and two deliveries from 2020 to 2025. They continue to retain flexibility in their order book.

    For reference, they Have included their anticipated order bespeak in the appendix section of their earnings desk and in their investor update. They Have restyled 10 A320 aircraft and anticipate additional an 60 restyled aircraft in 2019, with the equilibrium of the fleet during 2020. They continue to observe improved NPS scores and reduced unit costs on the restyled aircraft. This year, they furthermore expect to capture their first A321neo, which includes the latest technology in fuel efficiency.

    Given the recent and anticipated changes in their order book, they are lowering their CAPEX guidance for 2019 to gain of $1.2 billion to $1.4 billion, and increasing their 2020 guidance to a gain of $1.5 billion to $1.7 billion. Their CAPEX is focused on purchasing aircraft engines and their restyling efforts. Turning to glide 15. This quarter, they repaid $44 million in debt and raised nearly $147 million in secured aircraft debt.

    We closed the quarter with an adjusted debt-to-cap ratio of 33%, and their cash and investments was 11.6% of trailing 12-month revenue. Their tenacious equilibrium sheet continues to allow us to invest in the commerce and to opportunistically return excess capital to their owners. They currently Have a remaining equilibrium of $375 million under authorization to repurchase shares. Before they whirl to mp;A, I would like to thank their crew members for their arduous labor in helping further create value for their customers and their owners.

    We are thrilled to observe the emerging benefits of resetting their unit cost trajectory to grow their margins and earnings. They will now capture your questions. 

    Questions and Answers:

    David Fintzen -- Director of Investor Relations

    Thanks, everyone. Felicia, they are now ready for the question-and-answer session with the analysts. please sail ahead with the instructions.


    [Operator instructions] Their first question comes from Jamie Baker of JP Morgan.

    Jamie Baker -- J.P. Morgan -- Analyst

    [Inaudible] lottery. estimable morning, everybody. Can you assist us better understand the degree to which your assumptions on IROPs influence the ex-fuel CASM outcome? So if I assume about the 1.5% to 3.5% ex-fuel CASM usher for the first quarter, is it a foregone conclusion that if they don't observe another flake of snow in the northeast, then capacity will foster in at the elevated linger and the 1.5% is achieved. I'm just never really understood the degree, if any, that how much influence the weather really has on that cost gain and how they assume about that as they live through the weather ourselves as the quarter moves on.

    Any color?

    Steve Priest -- Executive Vice President, Chief pecuniary Officer

    Hi, Jamie. Steve here. estimable morning. I'll pick this one up.

    Jamie, we're very used to inclement weather during the winter in the Northeast based on their focus cities and the network that they fly, and they generally budget for a typical winter in the northeast. So when you assume about a daily winter with a number of seasonal storms, that's what they plot for and that's what they budget for. The only time you would observe us usher anything differently and change capacity guidance, if they saw a prolonged challenging winter and then you would observe us call out a specific item. But I assume what you should assume about is, it is a pretty standard winter.

    We Have daily weather patterns that we'd expect. That's totality included in their capacity usher and their CASM usher that they keep out for quarter one of 2019.

    Jamie Baker -- J.P. Morgan -- Analyst

    So that would imply sort of a midrange outcome if they Have one of those typical winters, more or less?

    Steve Priest -- Executive Vice President, Chief pecuniary Officer

    Yes, that's absolutely correct. Absolutely correct.

    Jamie Baker -- J.P. Morgan -- Analyst

    OK, that helps. And second question, On Fare Options 2.0, how should they live thinking about execution risk? I mean, 1.0 went smoothly, but it didn't interject any lower expense points. 2.0 specifically does identify lower expense offerings. I realize you may Have some of those fares out there and ultra low-cost carrier overlap markets already.

    I realize basic economy has been accretive for others. I'm just trying to assess how likely it is that 2.0 for JetBlue is similarly accretive. furthermore does it sail live systemwide totality at once, or does it roll out in phases?

    Marty St. George -- Executive Vice President, Commercial and Planning

    Hi, Jamie, it's Marty. Thanks for the question.

    Jamie Baker -- J.P. Morgan -- Analyst

    Hi, Marty.

    Marty St. George -- Executive Vice President, Commercial and Planning

    You know, we've looked at the execution of these different expense points by other carriers, and we're very cozy with their usher that they gave at Investor Day as far as the benefits of Fare Options 2.0. From an execution risk perspective, I'll converse from the economic side, which is, I just adore having more expense points with the better competence segment, the customer base. I was very successful in Fare Options 1.0 as far as how they created the bundles that would assist customers deserve the most value. And I'm looking forward for a different combination in 2.0.

    Joanna Geraghty -- President and Chief Operating Officer

    If I could...

    Jamie Baker -- J.P. Morgan -- Analyst

    And did you roll out totality at once?

    Marty St. George -- Executive Vice President, Commercial and Planning

    Well, again. I assume going back to what they had said earlier, it's really a fourth-quarter '19 event going forward. And if it's like most initiatives at JetBlue, we'll test and learn in individual markets, just like they enact with pricing today. It's sort of daily course of commerce for us, just with different bundles.


    Your next question comes from Duane Pfennigwerth with Evercore.

    Duane Pfennigwerth -- Evercor ISI -- Analyst

    Hey, thanks. Just on your JetBlue vacations that you've split off. Can you give us an update on where you are in ramping that revenue backup? And what the longer-term break you observe with respect to attach rates, etc.?

    Robin Hayes -- Chief Executive Officer

    Yes, you know. Thanks, Duane. It's Robin. I'll capture that.

    I assume as they highlighted previously, they were challenged in 2018 with a cutover that they had in the middle of the year. They definitely had some issues with that, they were transparent. The estimable tidings is that we've now cycled against that and they are sort of back as they observe at, sort of, Q1, 2019. They are back where they were and can observe to build forward.

    Andres, who is their president of their tech -- travel products has now hired his team, they've taken some space. There is a number of different sort of modern businesses that we're working on, and we're very cozy that we're in a trajectory to hit the numbers that they shared as Part of their 2020 EPS goal.

    Duane Pfennigwerth -- Evercor ISI -- Analyst

    And then, sorry, could you update us on where attach rates are today and where you assume you can deserve them to?

    Robin Hayes -- Chief Executive Officer

    Yes. So we've talked before about sort of their attach rate in very low single-digits. Of course, the 1.5%. I think, they said 1.4% at Investor Day.

    So you should capture 1.5% as rounding, Duane, and not sort of me signaling a incremental improvement already. But I enact assume that -- now that's an average, and so on inevitable Caribbean markets the attach rate is higher than that. But that's where they observe the break and certainly the focus of the team in the first year or two is to increase those attach rate. It's very low hanging fruit.

    We know the customers. They Have the customers. They're buying this product today. They just Have to enact a better job converting them over to JetBlue product other than the flight.

    And so that's what the focus is on, and we've seen upside to that attach rate.

    Duane Pfennigwerth -- Evercor ISI -- Analyst

    And then just for my follow-up, and I apologize if you said it already. But how many A320s are restyled currently? And how enact you observe that progressing over the course of the year? So what's that number by the fourth quarter of this year? Thanks for taking the questions.

    Steve Priest -- Executive Vice President, Chief pecuniary Officer

    No problem. Hi, Duane, estimable morning. It's Steve here. As of the linger of the year, we've completed 10 restyled aircraft.

    We now Have 11 done. They got four lines running. And by the linger of 2019, they will Have completed an additional 60 aircraft. So you can expect 17 total by the year-end.

    Duane Pfennigwerth -- Evercor ISI -- Analyst

    Thank you.

    Steve Priest -- Executive Vice President, Chief pecuniary Officer

    Thank you very much.


    Your next question comes from Catherine O'Brien with Goldman Sachs.

    Catherine OBrien -- Goldman Sachs -- Analyst

    Good morning, everyone. Thanks for the time. Maybe a question just on the complexion of your capacity growth for this year. What's really driving that? Is it gauge, destination, the combination of both? And then maybe some color on how to assume about that on domestic versus international would live helpful? Thank you.

    Marty St. George -- Executive Vice President, Commercial and Planning

    Hi, Cate, it's Marty. Thanks for the question. So I assume if you observe at their 2019 growth and especially in light of some of the fleet plot changes that Steve announced dinky bit earlier on the call, their growth this year is definitely focused on gauge and to a lesser extent stage. And from a direction geographically, silent very much focused on Caribbean, Florida and transcon.

    I will mention that they took their terminal mint configured 321 at the linger of terminal year for a while. This year, the planes they are getting will live the all-core configuration. I think, as Steve had said earlier, both of those plans are their highest margin airplanes and very tickled with how mint has grown. I assume we're going to capture some of the all-core planes for a while before they switch back to more mint at some unannounced point in the future.

    Catherine OBrien -- Goldman Sachs -- Analyst

    OK, got it. And then maybe one for Steve. So what are the biggest buckets left on your cost program to deserve from $199 million dash rate you've locked in now to the complete $250 million to $300 million? And when should they expect to update on these remaining items?

    Steve Priest -- Executive Vice President, Chief pecuniary Officer

    Good morning, Catherine. Thanks very much for the question. I firstly wanted to instruct I've been delighted with the progress that we've made. And I just refer back to my prepared comments where they basically had $200 million in terms of dash rate for 2020.

    And there's a 160 initiatives that we've completed totality are under way. They continue to execute against those significant items. And if you refer to Page 13 of their deck, you can observe a dinky bit of color on those. I assume the two -- a brace of the bigger areas that they continue to progress forward with, one is, I suppose, one of the final pillars of technical operations, which are the RFP that we've got out on the V2500 engines that power their 193 Airbus aircraft, and furthermore around components where they will live doing more labor as they progress through 2019.

    The other district continues to live excited about is in distribution. We've told you before on their earnings calls and with investors about the CSS RFP that we've got going forward, so that's well under way. And then from the core pillar, we've invested heavily in their outsourcing -- their strategic sourcing team and the leadership, and they've made tremendous progress over 2017 and 2018, and there's more to foster in 2019 as they sail through that. So I am confident in the glide path that they Have to deserve to the $250 million to $300 million.

    There's plenty of initiatives to go, and we're well on track in terms of going forward.

    Catherine OBrien -- Goldman Sachs -- Analyst

    Understood. Thank you.


    Your next question comes from Michael Linenberg of Deutsche Bank.

    Michael Linenberg -- Deutsche Bank -- Analyst

    Yes, hey. Two questions here. I guess, first to Robin. Robin, as you assume about launching transatlantic, and I assume 2019 is maybe the determination year for that or at least as it pertains to, I guess, the longer haul version of the Airbus narrow body.

    As you assume about that and you sort of observe some of the commentary coming up from some of the other carriers talking about may live some softness that we're seeing in transatlantic and then some of the data points that we're hearing from there as well, as well as the geopolitical issues. Does that give you pause? And I'm furthermore sort of asking this within the context of hitting that $2.50 to $3 EPS target for 2020. You sort of keep totality that together. Does that give you pause? And if you enact deem the Atlantic, it's something that's going to live a 2022, 2023 phenomenon? How enact you assume about it given just totality those moving parts?

    Robin Hayes -- Chief Executive Officer

    No, thanks. And estimable morning, Mike. Thanks for the question. As I said before, ultimately what will usher us is margin.

    And when they talked about their transatlantic thoughts, it's very much geared around how they assume about Boston and modern York, how they build out relevance. And some of these the European markets like London and now some of the largest markets in Boston that they don't serve. And so that is the context. But they really capture that determination in the same route they observe at any other modern route that they may add at any well-known time.

    What is the election that's going to drive the most margin. Obviously, if they enact capture a determination to soar to Europe, there are number of other issues that they requisite to labor through in terms of airport access and ETOPS certification, those things capture time. Now I expect that during the course of the year, they will sort of communicate a determination on most of these, not ready to instruct anything now. Clearly, we're mindful of sort of economic factors that come.

    And but these things enact tend to live cyclical. And I assume if they were to soar transatlantic, the break they Have is to tender a very tenacious premium offering and at a much lower fare than people are paying -- a significant number those customers are paying today. And as they saw on the mint -- when they launched mint on the transcon in 2014, that in itself has a stimulation result on the market. So totality of those things that will keep into a mountainous part, we're constantly evaluating them.

    But even if they were to go, it would silent remain a relatively diminutive Part of their overall ASM and cost structure.

    Michael Linenberg -- Deutsche Bank -- Analyst

    OK, great. Thanks for that. And just my second question to either Robin or maybe even Joanna as it relates to ops. I assume over this past week, they had storms foster through in northeast.

    And I noticed, I think, JetBlue basically canceled totality of its Boston on one of the days and the others did not. I mean, I assume most other carriers tried to maintain some semblance of a schedule, but I know it was silent bit of a challenge. The fact that your -- for totality intents and purposes, the North Eastern centric carrier, enact you -- when weather comes through, enact you Have to capture a more conservative approach given that a lot of your traffic, a lot of your assets tide through Boston and modern York. And is that what drove Boston, the shutdown that day or was it just somebody moved maybe a dinky bit more quickly and maybe afterwards they realized they probably were too conservative in dealing with it? Thank you, Joanna.

    Joanna Geraghty -- President and Chief Operating Officer

    Yes, sure. Thanks so much for the question. So they plot their cancellation strategy based upon the forecast known at the time. And that's what guides us in those decisions.

    And based on the forecast for the Boston area, they believe the determination to cancel their Boston plane on Sunday was the correct decision. And I assume if you actually observe at some of the challenges other carriers faced when trying to operate portions of their schedule, you saw delays that exceeded eight, nine, 10, 11 hours. And from a customer perspective, that's a rather unpleasant experience. So they plot their operation based on the forecast.

    We plot their operation based upon the resources that they have. Robin and I were actually up in Boston over the weekend and into Monday, so they saw firsthand. And I assume if you observe Boston, the Boston struggled with the recovery given the weather conditions that continue in terms of some of the icing challenges. So other carriers cancel a lot on Sunday as well.

    Unfortunately, a lot of those ended up being existent time, which is not optimal for anybody.

    Robin Hayes -- Chief Executive Officer

    Good morning, Michael. Just to bit on Joanna's point, because they were up there. Monday was actually the biggest challenge, because it was tedious to deserve the territory open and back to running. And during the day, they had seven hours ground laggard programs.

    And so this does become a judgment call as to whether you should cancel in advance, and they protect customers into other flights or whether you want them to foster to the airport and experience long delay. So they Have a very experienced team looking at that. I assume we've been through this more than anybody else because of their geography, and their team overall did a very, very estimable job balancing totality of these factors.

    Michael Linenberg -- Deutsche Bank -- Analyst

    Great. Thanks. Thanks, Robin. Thanks, Joanna.


    Your next question comes from Brandon Oglenski with Barclays.

    Brandon Oglenski -- Barclays -- Analyst

    Hey, thanks for taking my question. I guess, Robin, when they observe at the outlook here through 2020, there is a lot of positive aspects to the legend here on the revenue side, the cost side. But -- and I don't want to focus on the unique quarter. But the metrics here, with RASM potentially down, CASM up, maybe a dinky bit higher than they initially thought.

    I involve it just feels like the initial step here is in the wrong direction. So how enact they reconcile this? And enact they assume they deserve a lot of this revenue back in second quarter, and so should just view this more as timing than anything?

    Robin Hayes -- Chief Executive Officer

    Yes. I'm going to fling that over to Steve because he hasn't answered a question in a few, and he's thinking to respond it. Steve?

    Steve Priest -- Executive Vice President, Chief pecuniary Officer

    Thank you, Robin. estimable morning, Brandon. i hope you're well. A brace of things.

    From the RASM standpoint, let's not forget about the Easter and passover shift that moves 2 points from quarter 1 to quarter 2. So the Q1 RASM side of the house is purely timing. And Marty, soft of -- you heard Marty's prepared comments earlier about the current environment. I assume it's probably worth spending a dinky bit of time explaining the CASM trajectory for the complete year on what's happening in the quarter because candidly, it is a dinky bit of choppiness.

    The first thing I enact want to instruct is that I Have been very pleased with the impact of structural cost program has had on their underlying cost performance. And when I enact observe at Q1, it is in line with where they requisite to live to hit that 2019 plan, which delivers underlying negative CASM and keeps us on the path to their zero to one CAGR commitment that we've laid out. The choppiness is really around the time and materials elements for their Airbus engines and that maintenance CASM does sail around from quarter to quarter. And so the savings that you observe on a quarter-to-quarter basis are not equally shown.

    I would encourage you to capture a observe at their 2018 unit maintenance costs on a quarter-by-quarter basis and observe how they progressed as a reference point. And that's why they laid out both Q1, H1 and a H2 usher for both 2018 and 2019. As they showed in glide 10 of the deck, which really clarifies that sort of choppiness. So I would encourage you to observe at H1 versus H2 from that standpoint for each quarter.

    It's exactly the process they laid out in 2018, and it's exactly how they delivered. And you observe at 2019, and we're doing exactly the same. So I'm very, very pleased with what they delivered in '18. I'm very pleased with the cost trajectory for '19 and the usher outlines exactly the progression that we're going to form as they sail through the year.

    Brandon Oglenski -- Barclays -- Analyst

    I prize that, Steve. And I guess, maintenance was a mountainous portion of that tech ops savings that you guys highlighted even two years ago and recently at the analyst meeting. enact you believe that you Have the contrast in station to deliver on those 2020 goals and to deserve CASM lower?

    Steve Priest -- Executive Vice President, Chief pecuniary Officer

    We have, I would say, disproportionately focused over the terminal 18 months on maintenance, firstly because it's a significant cost for the business. And as they laid out at investor day, they Have seen significant percentages of CASM increase over a number of years. The journey is not over yet, Brandon. Again, they made significant progress both through the initiatives we've done with the NEO's and the A320s.

    And when they strategically been looking at those, they Have been presence in mind their existing fleet live it with their CF34 engines on the E190s and their V2500 engines on the Airbus fleet. The estimable tidings on the Airbus fleet and actually on the GE fleet as they sail forward. They Have not only been using some leverage from those bigger deals, but we're more been using a harmony of used materials and some generic parts, which they call them PMA. In addition to looking at both scope optimization with the MRO's who are servicing those engines.

    So there is more to come. And they are, as I mentioned earlier, in a big RFP for the V2500 engines going forward, which is nicely on track. As I've said before, we're not going to rush it for their quarter-to-quarter CASM savings because they are resetting the cost trajectory for the long-term. But observe at 2018 maintenance CASM.

    Look at what we're laying out for maintenance CASM for 2019. I'm confident in the path, and I'm confident in the team to execute what they requisite to deliver.

    Brandon Oglenski -- Barclays -- Analyst

    Thank you.


    Your next question comes from Kevin Crissey with Citi Group.

    Kevin Crissey -- Citi -- Analyst

    Hey, thanks for the time. My line prick out, so I apologize. I doubt this one's a repeat. Maybe it's for Marty or Dave Clark, if he's in the room.

    Talking about revenue management evolution, I observe you Have hiring for a position with next gen revenue management tools as Part of the, kindly of the essential responsibilities, as well as something called revenue integrity robotics. Would you live able to talk about kindly of the things that you're doing in the revenue management, obviously, without giving away any competitive information?

    Marty St. George -- Executive Vice President, Commercial and Planning

    No. Hi, Thanks for the question. Listen, I assume from a JetBlue perspective, when it comes to things like pricing and revenue management, they Have a different model than most of their competitors. We're primarily a point-to-point airline, they carry very dinky number of connecting customers.

    We've spent a lot of years working with relatively simplistic models. They started a effort terminal year -- earlier terminal year, about trying to design out what the future would live of pricing. And again, I think, the one thing I'd instruct is, my view of revenue management is, it's totality encompassing. It's pricing, it's inventory, it's the sizing of what's in their individual customer bundles, and they observe a lot of opportunities there.

    I assume that because we're not sort of a follower like a lot of their competitors are, and they enact their own things, they assume is a considerable break here. I don't really Have any details to announce. I mean, but they are very optimistic about it. I assume it's going to live an Awful lot of upside.

    We realize that the world of machine learning and AI is much, much bigger than they would even imagine. They made a lot of progress in that, but they Have nothing to broadcast privilege now.

    Kevin Crissey -- Citi -- Analyst

    OK. Thank you. I know it was a difficult question to answer. enact I remember an RFP for reservation system or something like that or maybe I missed an update on that or maybe I'm just totally wrong.

    Steve Priest -- Executive Vice President, Chief pecuniary Officer

    Good morning, Kevin. Steve here. As I -- unfortunately, you dropped off. Catherine had asked a similar question about what the opportunities are.

    So they don't know RFP at the moment, and when they Have anything to announce, they certainly will.

    Kevin Crissey -- Citi -- Analyst

    Thank you. Sorry about that.

    Steve Priest -- Executive Vice President, Chief pecuniary Officer

    No problem.


    Your next question comes from Savi Syth with Raymond James.

    Savi Syth -- Raymond James & Associates -- Analyst

    Hey, estimable morning. I just wanted to clarify dinky bit on the core RASM trends. You are seeing it sail from 2.4% to 1.75%, even though you Have the kindly of network and ancillary contribution. Is that really driven by kindly of higher capacity growth because I assume terminal quarter, there was some of the capacity was not existent capacity growth, but schedule-to-schedule issues.

    Just kindly of inquisitive about the sequential trend there on the core side?

    Marty St. George -- Executive Vice President, Commercial and Planning

    Hi, Savi, it's Marty. I assume if you observe at the guidance we've laid out and observe at their performance across 2018, I assume it was actually very consistent with sort of that two ply on their RASM growth. We're basically totality cleaned in the midpoint of their first-quarter guidance is 2.25%, which is more or less where we've been for the entire year other than in blip in the third -- fourth quarter. We're really not seeing material slowing in their view.

    This is sort of chugging along just like they thought it would.

    Savi Syth -- Raymond James & Associates -- Analyst

    Thanks. That's helpful. Thank you, Marty. And then just on the kindly of the focus city breakout, I was just kindly of inquisitive on the transcon.

    Mint now is probably kindly of fully in there. And I know you called out kindly of the trends are strong. Are you seeing kindly of unit revenue is that trend accelerating, just similar, consistent or is it decelerating because of the mint contribution is kindly of lapping itself?

    Marty St. George -- Executive Vice President, Commercial and Planning

    Yes. With respect to their regional performance, the transcon is doing well both in mint and non-mint markets. One thing -- the one thing I'll give you about mint, specifically about mint premium travel. Their mint RASM is up 6% and the capacity growth is in the mid-to high-teens.

    We continue to observe improbable claim for this product for any of you who Have flown it, I assume you've recognized why. You Have a combination of the best product in the industry and everyday low pricing and no upgrades. It has absolutely been really considerable margin builder for us. And frankly, with the service delivery that their crew members provide both on the ground and in the air, we've had no distress maximizing and using that as an break to deserve RASM up.


    Your next question comes from Hunter Keay with Wolfe Research.

    Hunter Keay -- Wolfe Research, LLC -- Analyst

    Thanks, estimable morning. Hey, Robin. You guys Have been pretty vocal in your opposition to U.S. airlines forming JVs with foreign airlines.

    And I'm kindly of inquisitive if that's going to dovetail with your own International plans. Obviously, I know, the dissimilarity in a JV and a codeshare, but does the opposition to International JV, sort of, preclude you guys from pursuing that path down the road when you settle to enact it?

    Robin Hayes -- Chief Executive Officer

    Hi, Hunter. estimable morning and thanks for the question. Actually, just to clarify, we've actually -- and I'm on my record -- my comments are public in a number of talks I've given. What they said is we're not necessarily opposed to JVs, but they requisite to Have better conditions to promote and allow modern entrant competition around it.

    So if you look, for example, their Delta Aeromexico filing, there were three remedies that they proposed that landed up being in the final order. The first was to remove the exclusivity provisions because they believe that those act as a barrier to competition. Now they Have other airlines foster us, who are in JVs, who want to labor with us, but they were unable to enact so. Secondly, to keep a time line around it because these things deserve approved and they are forever.

    Other regulatory authorities don't enact that and so, again, they proposed a three to five-year time line, five year was actually adopted in the Delta Aeromexico joint venture. And the third thing is, when these joint ventures soar into congested airports, that slot needs to live divested to promote competition. And so, again, they are very clearly with their language. It wasn't sort of a no per se.

    It was a -- if they continue, there needs to live better protection so that modern entrants and other airlines can compete against the JVs and Have a random of being successful. I hope it's helped in clarifying comments on that.

    Hunter Keay -- Wolfe Research, LLC -- Analyst

    Yes. No, that's good. I prize it. And then question for Steve.

    On glide 13, I'm kindly of inquisitive to know why you dropped in this multiyear contract with an IFE system for modern aircraft into the distribution bucket. I mean, it's a mistake, and I don't really observe it is related unless there is some angle that I'm missing and something unique you guys are doing, maybe something NDC related. But can you assist me understand why that is there?

    Steve Priest -- Executive Vice President, Chief pecuniary Officer

    Yes, Hunter. Thank you very much and estimable morning. considerable question. We're not being cute at all, Hunter.

    The key thing for us is that they laid out four pillars of the structural cost program back in December 2016. And not totality initiatives fits perfectly into each of those pillars. And so you're going to observe a brace of outliers in terms of the descriptions. So the terminal thing they want to enact is to cease confusing their investors, and you guys Have noticed as analysts.

    So it is what you would expect it to be. It's an IFE system, RFP that they went out with. We're pleased with the results of it. So nothing to observe here.

    It's just a initiative that happens to live under that specific pillar.

    Hunter Keay -- Wolfe Research, LLC -- Analyst

    I got you. OK. Thank you.

    Steve Priest -- Executive Vice President, Chief pecuniary Officer

    Thank you. Thanks, Hunter.


    Your next question comes from Helane Becker with Cowen.

    Helane Becker -- Cowen and Company -- Analyst

    Hi, everybody. Thank you, operator. Thanks for the time to claim a question. So if I observe at page -- glide 15 on your equilibrium sheet, and as they assume about 2019 and the CAPEX you Have for this year, as well as natural, I guess, debt repayment.

    So two questions. One, are you thinking of financing aircraft deliveries in the market or are you thinking of paying cash? And two, how should they assume about the slide, a year from now, after your CAPEX decisions and your other priority investments?

    Steve Priest -- Executive Vice President, Chief pecuniary Officer

    Good morning, Helane. It's very nice to converse to you. The first thing I would instruct is how pleased and disdainful I am of the shape of the equilibrium sheet. I mean, when I observe at the peer set across the U.S., first to Have a equilibrium sheet with the 33% adjusted debt-to-cap and sort of between the 10 to 12 liquidity level, it's certainly a station of strength that I would like to observe JetBlue in.

    To live honest, when they assume about aircraft purchases, it's their daily course of business. I'm pleased to instruct in 2018, they delivered free cash tide as you'll start to observe in their results when they proximate the K. They continue to forecast and expect continued free cash tide generation during 2019 and 2020. They will, as they fling cash of the business, we're thinking about the best deployments of that.

    So really as ever they continue with the balanced approach to capital allocation. You could continue to expect a blend of cash and sort of debt raises to purchase aircraft going forward. But again, I'm very, very tickled and confident with the trajectory of JetBlue's equilibrium sheet. And as things progress going forward, we'll continue to withhold the markets updated.

    Helane Becker -- Cowen and Company -- Analyst

    OK, great. Actually, that was really my only question. Thank you.

    Steve Priest -- Executive Vice President, Chief pecuniary Officer

    Thanks, Helane. considerable to converse to you this morning.


    Your next question comes from Joseph DeNardi from Stifel.

    Joseph DeNardi -- Stifel pecuniary Corp. -- Analyst

    Yes, thank you very much. Marty, it seems like we've heard some positive commentary from other airlines about Latin, South America RASM trends. Just given your exposure there, can you comment on kindly of what your expectations from that piece of your commerce are going forward. I know the exposure you guys Have in Puerto Rico, makes it a dinky bit unique, but just maybe talk about what you're seeing there and what your expectations are?

    Marty St. George -- Executive Vice President, Commercial and Planning

    Sure. Well, I assume when they observe at Latin overall, you know, I assume the only existent legend for 2019 is, they Have seen some capacity foster into the region. It's really -- it's sort of spotty in different places. It's non-hurricane markets or not hurricane-impacted markets, some hurricane markets.

    Certainly the elevated point of their performance for several years has been Caribbean. We're very optimistic on their position there. It's a bit of a mixed bag now. But again, capacity ebbs and flows.

    So I don't assume they observe at any of this as a longer-term trend.

    Joseph DeNardi -- Stifel pecuniary Corp. -- Analyst

    OK. And then, Steve, just on the CAPEX profile. Can you give us, just based on your current order book, when and what peak CAPEX is just given that book?

    Steve Priest -- Executive Vice President, Chief pecuniary Officer

    Yes. It's a very, very estimable question. And estimable morning. Obviously, we're moving through that.

    We're sort of -- I assume what you should assume about is how the order bespeak progresses as they navigate through the replacement of the E190 fleet in addition to their organic growth. That delivery schedule is laid out in appendix C of their presentation this morning. I assume you can start to observe in 2023 and 2024, where that peaks as they transition from the E190 to the incredibly accretive from both the margin and revenue standpoint of the A320s. So it will ramp a dinky bit.

    And I assume you're probably thinking about peak in '23, 2024. The other thing that we've looked at and we've presented in the deck is, and I alluded to in my prepared comments, was the shift in the NEO aircraft that we're seeing in 2019, 2020. And we've given sort of CAPEX guide, which is directional with a minimum of six aircraft. So as they continue to labor with Airbus as they progress through '19, you'll deserve a sense of that.

    But it should in some route peak in '23, '24 as they sail forward.

    Joseph DeNardi -- Stifel pecuniary Corp. -- Analyst

    Steve, is the expectation that the commerce is going to live -- the commerce environment and the just performance of JetBlue is going to live -- Have to live estimable enough to generate enough cash to back that CAPEX or are you willing to consume the equilibrium sheet to finance that order book?

    Steve Priest -- Executive Vice President, Chief pecuniary Officer

    As I've mentioned in a previous question that sort of came today, I assume it was from Helane, about the foundation of the equilibrium sheet for JetBlue is incredibly important. And we're absolutely focused on that. They laid out a very compelling plot through to 2020, and I would encourage you to observe at macro associated with that. I was even talking about a fuel environment with 233 jet in it.

    So we're confident about the path. We'll obviously continue to withhold a proximate eye on the macro environment. The other thing, I would say, they Have a significant level of flexibility in their order book. So we'll continue to observe at that.

    And then finally, the key thing that JetBlue is going to drive is margin. And so they will form the privilege CAPEX investments and the privilege fleet investments to form confident that we're driving both relative and absolute margins going forward. So that plays into the decisions that we'll navigate as they progress through the next few years.

    Joseph DeNardi -- Stifel pecuniary Corp. -- Analyst

    Thanks, Steve. That's helpful.

    Steve Priest -- Executive Vice President, Chief pecuniary Officer

    Thank you.


    [Operator instructions] Your next question comes from Joe Caiado with Credit Suisse.

    Jose Caiado -- Credit Suisse -- Analyst

    Hey, estimable morning, everyone. Thanks for taking my questions. First question I Have is a follow-up on something Kevin was asking about earlier. At investor day, you said you're working on modern revenue management tools to assist with merchandising, but furthermore to enable some of these modern product offerings, the Fare Options, basic economy.

    And you're furthermore investing in a modern distribution capability. Marty, I recognize you've got nothing modern to broadcast privilege now, but should they assume about the timing of the launch of basic economy in Q4 as tied to the successful progress and implementation of those modern tools?

    Marty St. George -- Executive Vice President, Commercial and Planning

    Hi, Joe, thanks for the question. I would not tie those things together explicitly. I would say, we're already doing some dynamic labor with some of the modeling that we're doing. So there's not going to live a mountainous bang launch of everything.

    I would call this an evolution rather than revolution, but we're very optimistic about the opportunities they observe out there. And again, I think, I'd sail back to the break that they Have as primarily direct business, primarily leisure business. They don't really necessarily Have to follow some of the same orthodoxy that their competitors do. So they assume there's a considerable break for us here.

    Jose Caiado -- Credit Suisse -- Analyst

    Got it. Thanks. And then my second question is a mountainous picture, kindly of long-term, furthermore focused on a potential expansion into the transatlantic. So you've got the A220s coming beginning next year, and that's obviously going to supersede the E190 fleet.

    Your comments around potential transatlantic expansion totality focused on the A321LR platform, if you settle to sail ahead and pull the trigger, I know you're not ready to broadcast anything. But I was just wondering, given the recent ETOP certification for the A220 and its competence to soar transatlantic, could you deem deploying that platform into the transatlantic market? enact you deem that kindly of fleet flexibility as you evaluate the potential for European service, or am I just route off here?

    Robin Hayes -- Chief Executive Officer

    No. No. Thanks for the question. Robin.

    I'll capture that. As they said the primary role of the A220 is to supersede the 190. And so that is the focus. Most of their thinking around a potential European expansion from their focus cities of Boston and JFK Have really been around the 321LR platform.

    I assume in the -- beyond that there may live lots of different opportunities that emerge, but that's so far out into the future that it's not something we're spending a lot of energetic time considering.

    Jose Caiado -- Credit Suisse -- Analyst

    Appreciate the color. Thanks, Robin.

    David Fintzen -- Director of Investor Relations

    And that concludes their fourth-quarter 2018 conference call. Thanks for joining us. Have a considerable day.


    [Operator signoff]

    Duration: 66 minutes

    Call Participants:

    David Fintzen -- Director of Investor Relations

    Robin Hayes -- Chief Executive Officer

    Marty St. George -- Executive Vice President, Commercial and Planning

    Steve Priest -- Executive Vice President, Chief pecuniary Officer

    Jamie Baker -- J.P. Morgan -- Analyst

    Joanna Geraghty -- President and Chief Operating Officer

    Duane Pfennigwerth -- Evercor ISI -- Analyst

    Catherine OBrien -- Goldman Sachs -- Analyst

    Michael Linenberg -- Deutsche Bank -- Analyst

    Brandon Oglenski -- Barclays -- Analyst

    Kevin Crissey -- Citi -- Analyst

    Savi Syth -- Raymond James & Associates -- Analyst

    Hunter Keay -- Wolfe Research, LLC -- Analyst

    Helane Becker -- Cowen and Company -- Analyst

    Joseph DeNardi -- Stifel pecuniary Corp. -- Analyst

    Jose Caiado -- Credit Suisse -- Analyst

    More JBLU analysis

    This article is a transcript of this conference call produced for The Motley Fool. While they strive for their ludicrous Best, there may live errors, omissions, or inaccuracies in this transcript. As with totality their articles, The Motley Fool does not assume any responsibility for your consume of this content, and they strongly encourage you to enact your own research, including listening to the call yourself and reading the company's SEC filings. please observe their Terms and Conditions for additional details, including their Obligatory Capitalized Disclaimers of Liability.

    More From The Motley Fool

    Motley Fool Transcribing has no position in any of the stocks mentioned. The Motley Fool recommends JetBlue Airways. The Motley Fool has a disclosure policy.

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